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Cataract is one of the leading visual disorders that occur due to aging. It is one of the most common eye diseases that cause vision loss in the world. The human eye is one of the sensory organs most affected by the aging process. The sense of sight can be affected depending on age, as well as as a result of various environmental factors and other physical processes. The adaptability of the natural intraocular lens, whose structure changes as it ages, decreases over time. New fiber layers form around the lens. At the end of this process, in which the lens nucleus undergoes physiological changes, various stains occur on the lens nucleus. While the cataract is in its infancy, stronger ambient lighting and glasses can contribute to the improvement of our vision. As cataract progresses over time, it severely affects daily activities.When the disease progresses, the permanent solution for treatment is to remove the changed eye lens and replace it with a new artificial lens. It is not possible to restore normal vision with any treatment other than cataract surgery.

What is Cataract?

Cataract is the loss of transparency of the lens that enables us to see the image coming from the outside to the retina. Various chemical changes occur in the proteins called crystalline in the structure of the lens of the eye, located behind the iris, which forms the colored part of the eye. These changes result in high molecular weight protein aggregates. With this change in the texture of the lens, the eye loses its transparency. The light does not reach the retina in a healthy way and vision loss occurs.The main reason for this situation is that the distribution of light entering the eye from outside is interrupted as a result of staining in the eye and the image does not fall on the retina in a healthy way. When blurred vision reaches a certain level, it should be treated. As the cataract progresses, adaptation to light slows down and vision difficulties occur in dim light. If left untreated, the patient becomes unable to perform daily activities. As a result, if we think of our eye as a camera, we can see cataract disease as the icing of the lens of the lens in front of the camera.

What Causes Cataract?

Cataracts occur due to the aging of the lens of the eye. Our eye lens is one of the earliest aging tissues. Even in people who do not have vision problems, near-sightedness problems may occur in their early 40s. Thus, the need for close glasses may arise.Afterwards, the risk of cataract formation in our eye lens, which begins to lose its transparency from the age of 60, is very high. There is no definite information that cataract is seen only in elderly patients. In general, cases in patients over 40 years of age may occur depending on age. From this point of view, it would be correct to say that cataract is both a disease and a natural consequence of our aging. Therefore, cataract surgery is one of the most performed surgeries in the world.

What Are the Symptoms of Cataract?

Cataract symptoms begin with loss of vision at the beginning of the disease, slight blurring, fading in perceived colors, dispersion, especially at night. In the advanced stages of the disease, both near vision and far vision are severely impaired. For people with cataracts, vision is like looking through a frosted or misted window. Blurred vision, which occurs as the disease progresses, makes it difficult to read, drive and see details.Most types of the disease develop slowly and blurring of vision in the early period does not cause discomfort to the person.

Cataract symptoms are as follows:

• Difficulty in reading,

• Gradual decrease in vision,

• Sensitivity to light,

• Double vision,

• Fading and yellowing in colors,

• Frequent changes in glasses numbers,

• Disturbance in night vision,You may experience general symptoms such as

What Are the Types of Cataracts?

Cataract is generally known as a vision problem due to aging. With the most general view, the disease can be divided into three basic types, but there are 5 different types in total. Senile

Type: It is the most common type. It develops with age. It is a type that usually starts after the age of 50 and may need cataract surgery after the age of 60. Subcapsular

Type: It develops on the back of the lens, progresses faster than other types, and may impair vision at an early stage.Cortical

Type: It is the type that develops from the side of the eye lens. Both distance and near vision are equally affected. Congenital (congenital)

Type: It is a congenital type. It can occur in one or both eyes of the baby. Impact Related (trauma)

Type: This type of the disease can develop immediately after trauma or within years.

What Are the Risks of Cataracts?

Although cataract is a common eye disease in middle-aged people;

• Diabetes,

• As a result of the processes experienced in the mother’s womb in newborn babies

,• Eye traumas as a result of physical blows to the eye,

• Eye diseases such as uveitis,

• Genetics