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What is the Smear Test? 

It is the procedure used to detect cellular irregularities and precancerous cells and infections in the cervix, especially (cervix) cervical cancer. In addition, the smear test can help in the early diagnosis of uterine lining (endometrium) cancer. Thus, cellular disorders are detected at an early stage before they turn into uterine and cervical cancer. The patient can fully regain his health. 

How is the Smear Test Done?

 The Smear Test is a test performed by taking a swab from the area called the cervix, painlessly, with the help of a brush, in a short time like 5-10 seconds. The cervix is the part of the uterus inside the vagina that can be seen with the speculum during the gynecological examination.

 During cervical examination, it is observed as a round structure with a hole in the middle in women who have not given birth. In women who have had a vaginal birth, the middle part becomes a horizontal line. The Importance of the Smear TestDisorders and changes may occur in the cells of the cervix.Cells that undergo this change are called “precancerous cells (cellular dysplasia)”. The purpose of the smear test is to detect changes before they turn into cancer. 

In this way, women can easily get treatment before they reach the stage of cancer. The main reason why normal cells in the cervix become cancer precursor cells is the Human Papilloma Virus (HPV). HPV causes warts in the genital area and cancer precursor cells (dysplasia) in the cervix. 

HPV is most commonly transmitted sexually. In our country, there has been an increase in HPV-related warts and cervical cancer precursor lesions in recent years. The smear test is an easy and painless procedure that is effective in detecting these precancerous changes at an early stage. 

Thanks to the smear test, cellular changes can be treated before they turn into cervical cancer. After the treatment, the woman regains her full health and can become pregnant. There is no need to take radiation or drug therapy to remove the uterus.

We can list the risk factors that increase the probability of the emergence of cancer precursor cells in the cervix in the smear test;Having sexual intercourse at an early agePresence of multiple sexual partnersSexually transmitted diseases (such as gonorrhea, syphilis, herpes virus)Presence of genital wartspoor genital careSmoking